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   Index



 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

(Honeysuckle family)

 

• Medicinal / Folk-medicinal aspects: The use of decoctions and ointments to treat various skin affections and wounds has been reported, as has an essentially cosmetic use as a perfumed hair tonic. •
• Adverse effects: Adverse skin reactions have been reported but seem to be rare. •
• Veterinary aspects: With the exception of a single report of the use of one species to treat unspecified skin diseases in mules, no evidence of use of these plants in animal dermatology has been found. •

This family of 900 species of shrubs, lianes and herbs in 28 genera is distributed through northern temperate regions, also occurring in South Africa and on tropical mountains. The principal genera are Cephalaria Schrad. (99 spp.), Lomelosia Raf. (63 spp.), Lonicera L., (155 spp.), Scabiosa L. (62 spp.), and Valeriana L. (420 spp.). Until recently, the genera Sambucus L. and Viburnum L. were also included in this family, these now having been moved to the Viburnaceae. Also, genera previously classified in the Dipsacaceae, Morinaceae, and the Valerianaceae are now regarded as belonging to the Caprifoliaceae (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2003). Some authorities have previously separated the genera Diervilla Mill. and Weigela Thunb. into their own family, the Diervillaceae (the bush honeysuckle family).

Honeysuckles of the genus Lonicera L., and snowberries of the genus Symphoricarpos Duhamel are found in Europe both in the wild and in cultivation as ornamental shrubs. Various species and cultivars of Diervilla Mill. and especially of Weigela Thunb. ("weigelias") are also grown, as are red valerian (Valeriana rubra L., syn. Centranthus ruber DC.) and various Patrinia Juss., Scabiosa L., and Valeriana L. species (Hunt 1968/70). Horn of plenty (Valeriana cornucopiae L., syn. Fedia cornucopiae Gaertn.) is sometimes cultivated as a salad crop, as is lambs' lettuce or Lewiston cornsalad (Valeriana locusta L., syns Valerianella locusta Laterr., Valerianella olitoria Pollich).

The flower heads of Dipsacus sativus Honck., the fuller's teasel, have hooked spiny bracts. This has led to the use of the matured and dried flower heads ("burrs") for raising a nap on cloth. The fuller's teasel is closely related to the common or wild teasel Dispacus fullonum L., which has straight rather than hooked spiny bracts, these being of no use in dressing cloth. Nomenclatural confusion has arisen from the use by a number of authors of the name Dipsacus fullonum when referring to Dipsacus sativus and vice versa (Ferguson & Brizicky 1965). Whilst most authorities now regard these two taxa as separate species, Ryder (1996) questioned this, suggesting that the fuller's teasel has arisen through a process of selection or "domestication" from the wild teasel.



Cephalaria microcephala Boiss.

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Diervilla lonicera Mill.
(syns Diervilla canadensis Willd., Diervilla trifida Moench)
Bush Honeysuckle, Dièreville Chèvrefeuille

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dipsacus L.
Teasels

This is a small genus of about 20 species of erect perennial plants, many of which have bristly or prickly stems and spine-tipped bracts capable of inflicting mechanical injury. Ronel & Lev-Yadun (2012) referred to the prickly stems and leaves and the spiny inflorescence of Dipsacus laciniatus L., the cut-leaved teasel.



Dipsacus asper Wall. ex DC.
(syns Dipsacus asperoides C.Y.Cheng & T.M.Ai, Dipsacus daliensis T.M.Ai, Dipsacus enshiensis C.Y.Cheng & T.M.Ai)
Teasel

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dipsacus fullonum L.
(syns Dipsacus fullonum var sylvestris Schmalh., Dipsacus sylvestris Huds.)
Common Teasel, Teasel, Wild Teasel

Piffard (1881) referred to an earlier report in which it was noted that Dipsacus sylvestris has proven useful in the local treatment of warts, but provided no detail.

Dipsacus Sylvestris Extract [INCI; CAS RN 90131-47-8; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)]a is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient purported to have skin conditioning properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).



Heptacodium miconioides Rehder
(syn. Heptacodium jasminoides Airy Shaw)
Seven Son Flower Tree

Heptacodium Miconioides Flower Extract & Heptacodium Miconioides Leaf Extract [INCI; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)] are recognised cosmetic product ingredients purported to have skin conditioning properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).



Knautia arvensis Coult.
(syns Scabiosa arvensis L., Succisa arvensis Raf., etc.)
Bluebuttons, Field Scabious, Gypsy's Rose, Scabieuse des Champs, Wiesen-Witwenblume

Hydrolyzed Scabiosa Arvensis Callus Extract [INCI] and Scabiosa Arvensis Extract [INCI; CAS RN 90046-08-5]a – both of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017) – are recognised cosmetic product ingredients purported to have antioxidant and skin conditioning / soothing properties respectively (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).



Lonicera L.
Honeysuckle

Ripps (1958) provided a case report of recurring pruritic allergic dermatitis in a dachshund. The owner noticed an odour of jasmine when the dog came into the house, indicating that the dog had been in contact with Lonicera [species not identified] bushes that were flowering at the time. No further episodes of dermatitis occurred after the bushes were removed.



Lonicera caerulea L.
(syns Caprifolium caeruleum Lam., Lonicera emphyllocalyxMaxim., Metalonicera edulis M.Wang & A.G.Gu, Xylosteon caeruleum Dum.Cours.)
Blue Honeysuckle, Blue-Berried Honeysuckle, Fly Honeysuckle, Haskap, Honeyberry, Sweetberry Honeysuckle

Lonicera Caerulea Fruit, Lonicera Caerulea Fruit Juice, & Lonicera Caerulea Fruit Water [INCI; all of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)] are recognised cosmetic product ingredients purported variously to have humectant and skin conditioning properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).



Lonicera caprifolium L.
(syn. Lonicera pallida Host)
Italian Honeysuckle, Italian Woodbine, Perfoliate Honeysuckle

A case report of dermatitis from this species in a 46-year old female was provided by Schönfeld (1936).

Lonicera Caprifolium Extract & Lonicera Caprifolium Flower Extract [INCI; CAS RN 84603-62-3; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)]a are recognised cosmetic product ingredients variously purported to have astringent, masking, perfuming, and/or skin conditioning properties. Lonicera Caprifolium is also included in some multicomponent preparations, concoctions, and fermentation products intended for use in cosmetic product formulations (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera confusa DC.
(syns Caprifolium confusum Spach, Lonicera dasystyla Rehder, Lonicera multiflora Champ. ex Benth., Lonicera telfairii Hook. & Arn., Nintooa confusa Sweet)
Soft-Leafed Honeysuckle

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.
(syns Caprifolium hypoglaucum Kuntze, Caprifolium mollissimum Kuntze, Lonicera affinis var hypoglauca Rehder, Lonicera affinis var pubescens Maxim.)
Honeysuckle

In Chinese traditional medicine, the flowers provide the crude drug jin yin hua (金银花), otherwise known as Flos Lonicerae (see also Lonicera japonica Thunb. ex Murray below).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera involucrata Banks ex Spring
(syns Distegia involucrata Cockerell, Xylosteon involucratum Richardson)
Black Twin-Berry, California Honeysuckle, Twinberry Honeysuckle

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera japonica Thunb. ex Murray
(syn. Lonicera chinensis P.Watson)
Chinese Honeysuckle, Japanese Honeysuckle

In Chinese traditional medicine, the flowers provide the crude drug jin yin hua (金银花), otherwise known as Flos Lonicerae (see also Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. above).

Lonicera Japonica Flower Extract & Lonicera Japonica Leaf Extract [INCI; CAS RN 223749-79-9; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)]a and also Lonicera Japonica Stem Extract [INCI] are recognised cosmetic product ingredients purported to have skin conditioning properties. The cosmetic product ingredients Lonicera Japonica Callus Extract [INCI; skin protecting properties] and Lonicera Japonica Callus Lysate [INCI; antioxidant properties] are produced from Lonicera japonica grown as a tissue culture; Lonicera Japonica Flower Powder [INCI] is used as a fragrance. Lonicera Japonica is also included in numerous multicomponent preparations, concoctions, and fermentation products intended for use in cosmetic product formulations (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).

A 41-year old female patient presented with a relapsing itching dermatitis of the armpits after the use of a ‘hypoallergenic’ roll-on deodorant. A patch test with one of its fragrance components, Lonicera Japonica Flower Extract (5% aqua), produced no reaction (Corazza et al. 2013).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera periclymenum L.
(syn. Lonicera serotina Phillips)
Common Honeysuckle, European Honeysuckle, Woodbine

Lonicera Periclymenum Callus Culture Extract [INCI; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)] is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient produced from Lonicera periclymenum grown as a tissue culture. It is purported to have antimicrobial, skin conditioning, and skin protecting properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC.
(syn. Morina elegans Fisch. & Avé-Lall.)
Himalayan Whorlflower, Long-Leaved Whorlflower, Langblättrige Kardendistel

This is a member of a small genus of rosette-forming, thistle-like perennials with aromatic, spiny-margined leaves and spiny bracts. The plants are found naturally from the Balkans to China but are occasionally grown as garden ornamentals elsewhere (Hunt 1968/70).

Kumar et al. (2014) referred to traditional Chinese, Tibetan, and Indian medicinal uses (including dermatological and veterinary uses) of the plants, and provided a review of the phytochemistry of the genus Morina L. Constituents reviewed included phenylpropanoids, sterols, iridoids, terpenes, lignans, neolignans, and phenolics including substances that are known to be potentially contact allergenic. Notably, the essential oil distilled from these plants has been found to comprise principally β-myrcene, but also contains geraniol formate, limonene, citral, dihydrocarveol, and cis-p-menth-1-en-3,8-diol.



Nardostachys jatamansi DC.
(syns Nardostachys chinensis Batalin, Nardostachys grandiflora DC., Patrinia jatamansi D.Don)
Indian Spikenard, Indian Valerian, Muskroot, Nard, Spikenard

This species is the source of oil of spikenard or Indian valerian root oil, a fragrance raw material. Arctander (1960) noted that the oil is a scarce commodity and, when available, is frequently adulterated. The oil from the false jatamansi (Selinum vaginatum C.B.Clarke, fam. Umbelliferae) is a possible adulterant (Srivastava et al. 2010).

Nardostachys Jatamansi Oil, Nardostachys Jatamansi Root Oil, & Nardostachys Jatamansi Rhizome/Root Extract [INCI; CAS RN 90064-28-1; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)]a and also Nardostachys Jatamansi Extract [INCI], Nardostachys Chinensis Extract [INCI], & Nardostachys Chinensis Root Extract [INCI] are recognised cosmetic product ingredients variously purported to have skin conditioning, emollient, and perfuming / fragrancing properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).

Valeriana jatamansi Jones (see below), is also known as Indian valerian and also recognised as a source of Indian spikenard oil. The two species are considered to be distinct by Mabberley & Noltie (2014) and by others (Steinmetz 1965) but are seemingly widely regarded as one and the same plant in the general literature. The nomenclatural confusion (see Weberling 1975) has its origins in the work of early botanists who sought to equate the jatamansi of the Hindus with the spikenard mentioned in the Bible.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Patrinia scabiosifolia Link
(syns Patrinia hispida Bunge, Patrinia japonica Miq., Valeriana japonica Miq.)
Eastern Valerian, Golden Lace, Golden Valerian, Yellow Patrinia

Patrinia Scabiosifolia Extract & Patrinia Scabiosifolia Root Extract [INCI; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)] are recognised cosmetic product ingredients purported to have skin conditioning / emollient properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).



Patrinia villosa Dufr.
(syn. Valeriana villosa Thunb.)
Patrinia

Patrinia Villosa Extract [INCI; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)] is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient purported to have skin conditioning properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).



Scabiosa L.
Scabious

Several species in this genus of 100 hardy biennial and perennial herbaceous plants are cultivated in gardens.

A patch test to an unidentified species of Scabiosa in a 67-year old gardener who had developed dermatitis of the hands and face from chrysanthemums (fam. Compositae) and primulas (fam. Primulaceae), produced a negative reaction (Leipold 1938).



Scabiosa columbaria L.
(syns Asterocephalus columbaria Wallr., Columbaria vulgaris J.Presl & C.Presl)
Dove Pincushion, Pincushion Flower, Pigeon Scabious, Small Scabious, Columbaire, Tauben-Skabiose

According to Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk (1962), the dried plant is in common use among the African as a perfumed dusting powder, especially for infants; and the Xhosa use a preparation of the root as an application to sore eyes. They also noted that an ointment made from the charred root and kerosene is applied by the Sotho to venereal sores.



Scabiosa transvaalensis S.Moore
Wild Scabious

The Tswana use a decoction of the root as a lotion for sore eyes (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).



Succisa pratensis Moench
(syns Scabiosa succisa L., Succisa dentata Jord. & Fourr., Succisa praemorsa Asch.)
Blue Buttons, Devil's Bit Scabious, Teufelsabbiß, Mors du Diable, Tête de Loup

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Symphoricarpos albus S.F.Blake
(syns Symphoricarpos pauciflorus Britton, Symphoricarpos racemosus Michx., Vaccinium album L.)
Waxberry, Snowberry, Snowball

The Songish, Saanich, and Cowichan Indians of the north-western coast of North America rubbed the berries on rashes, sores, and burns (Turner & Bell 1971).

Pammel (1911) listed Symphoricarpos racemosus as having irritant properties, but may have been referring to gastro-intestinal rather than dermatologic effects.

Symphoricarpos Albus Fruit Extract & Symphoricarpos Albus Leaf Extract [INCI; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)] are recognised cosmetic product ingredients purported to have skin conditioning / emollient properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Valeriana capensis Thunb.
Cape Valerian

Referring to earlier literature, Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk (1962) noted that in the traditional medicine of southern Africa, the root is used externally and internally as an irritant.



Valeriana dioica var sylvatica S.Watson
(syn. Valeriana septentrionalis Rydb.)
Woods Valerian

Referring to Valeriana septentrionalis, Smith (1929) recorded that the Northern Carrier, Southern Carrier, and Gitksan tribes of British Columbia, Canada mixed plant material with grease for use as a hair perfume and tonic. Valeriana sitchensis Bong., the Sitka valerian, was similarly used.



Valeriana jatamansi Jones
(syns Valeriana harmsii Graebn., Valeriana hygrobia Briq., Valeriana mairei Briq., Valeriana wallichii DC.)
Indian Valerian, Indischer Baldrian

Valeriana Jatamansi Rhizome Oil [INCI; CAS RN 94280-15-6; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)]a, the volatile oil distilled from the roots, is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient purported to have antimicrobial, antiseborrhoeic, emollient, humectant, masking, and skin conditioning properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2021). It is known as sugandhawal oil in India and Nepal where it is used in perfumery (ANSAB 2006). Valeriana Jatamansi Extract [CAS RN 94280-15-6], an extract of the roots, may also be encountered.

See also Nardostachys jatamansi DC. above, which also is known as Indian valerian.



Valeriana officinalis L.
(syn. Valeriana exaltata J.C.Mikan ex Pohl)
All-Heal, Capon's Tail, Garden Heliotrope, Setwall, Valerian, Baldrian, Katzenkraut, Herbe-aux-Chats, Valériane

The crude drug Radix Valerianae is obtained the dried rhizome and roots of this plant (Remington et al. 1918). This has a long history of use as a herbal sedative. The fragrance raw materials valerian oil and valerian absolute are also derived from this plant (Arctander 1960).

Bateman (1836) noted that "both vesicular and pustular affections are excited by the local irritation of blisters, stimulating plasters, and cataplasms of … Arsenic, Valerian root, &c." Bernhard Smith (1905) included Valeriana officinalis in a list of "simple irritants", ascribing its irritant properties to valerianic acid and oil of valerian. However, he may have been referring to gastro-intestinal irritancy rather than skin irritancy.

The use of this plant in Italian folk veterinary medicine for the treatment of [unspecified] skin conditions in mules is noted by Viegi et al. (2003).



Weigela japonica Thunb.
(syns Diervilla japonica DC., Diervilla versicolor Siebold & Zucc.)
Japanese Weigela

[Information available but not yet included in database]


References

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  • [ + 11 further references not yet included in database]



Richard J. Schmidt

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